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Tod Reeder Ph.D.

Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Affairs
Professor of Biology
Phone: 619.594.332
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San Diego State University

College of Sciences GMCS 604-K

5500 Campanile Dr.

San Diego, CA 92182-1010

B.S., Emporia State University, Biology, 1985.
M.S., University of Missouri-Kansas City, Biology, 1990.
Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin, Zoology, 1993.

Research Interests

Biodiversity Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles

  • Species delimitation and speciation
  • Phylogenetic inference
  • Historical biogeography, particularly of western North America & Central America
  • Evaluation of species richness patterns using macroevolutionary and macroecology approaches

Publications (students from Reeder lab are underlined)

  • Barley, A., A. Nieto-Montes de Oca,T. W. Reeder, N. Manirquez-Morán, J. C. Arenas Monroy, O. Hernández-Gallegos, and R. Thomson. Complex patterns of hybridization and introgression across evolutionary timescales in Mexican whiptail lizards. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution submitted.
  • Harrington, S. M., B. D. Hollingsworth, T. Higham, and T. W. Reeder. 2018. Pleistocene climatic fluctuations drive historical isolation and secondary contact in the Red Diamond Rattlesnake (Crotalus ruber in Baja California. Journal of Biogeography 5:64-75.
  • de Quieroz, K., T. W. Reeder, and A. D. Leaché.  2017. Squamata (in part) – Lizards. in B. I. Crother (ed.), Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding pp. 38-58-102. SSAR Herpetological Circular 43.
  • Leavitt, D. H.,A. B. Marion, B. D. Hollingsworth, and T. W. Reeder. 2017. Multilocus phylogeny of alligator lizards (Elgaria Anguidae): Testing mtDNA introgression as the source of discordant molecular phylogenetic hypotheses. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 110:104-121.
  • Harrington, S. M., and T. W. Reeder. 2017. Phylogenetic inference and divergence dating of snakes using molecules, morphology, and fossils: New insights on convergent evolution of feeding morphology and limb reduction. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 121:379-394.
  • Harrington, S. M., and T. W. Reeder. 2017. Rate heterogeneity across Squamata, misleading ancestral state reconstruction, and the importance of proper null model specification. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 30:313-325.
  • Gottscho, A. D.,D. A. Wood, A. G. Vandergast, J. Lemos-Espinal, J. Gatesy, and T. W. Reeder. 2017. Lineage diversification of fringe-toed lizards (Phrynosomatidae: Uma notata omplex) in the Colorado Desert:  Delimiting species in the presence of gene flow. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 106:103-117.
  • Harrington, S. M., D. H. Leavitt, and T. W. Reeder. 2016. Squamate phylogenetics, molecular branch lengths, and molecular apomorphies: A response to McMahan et al. (2015). Copeia 104:702-707.
  • Klein, E. R., R. B. Harris, R. N. Fisher, and T. W. Reeder. 2016. Biogeographic history and coalescent species delimitation of Pacific Island lizards (Squamata: Scincidae: Emoia cyanura species group). Journal of Biogeography 3:1917-1929.
  • Peralta-García, A., D. H. Leavitt, B. D. Hollingsworth, and T. W. Reeder. 2016. The phylogenetic position of the Little Mexican Toad, Anaxyrus kelloggi using molecular data. Journal of Herpetology 50:471-475.
  • Lambert, S. M., T. W. Reeder, and J. J. Wiens. 2016. Corrigendum to “When do species-tree and concatenated estimates disagree? An empirical analysis with higher-level scincid lizard phylogeny”. [Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 82A (2015) 146-155]. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 7:242-243.
  • Reeder, T. W., T. M. Townsend, D. G. Mulcahy, B. P. Noonan, J. W. Sites, Jr., and J. J. Wiens. 2015. Integrated analyses resolve conflicts over squamate reptile phylogeny and reveal unexpected placements for fossil taxa. PLoS ONE DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118199.
  • Lambert, S. M., T. W. Reeder, and J. J. Wiens. 2015. When do species-tree and concatenated estimates disagree? An empirical analysis with higher-level scincid lizard phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 82:146-155.
  • Grummer, J. A., R. W. Bryson, Jr., and T. W. Reeder. 2014. Species delimitation using Bayes factors: Simulations and application to the Sceloporus scalaris pecies group (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae). Systematic Biology 63:119-133.
  • Wiens, J. J., C. Hutter, D. G. Mulcahy, B. P. Noonan, T. M. Townsend, J. W. Sites Jr., and T. W. Reeder. 2012. Resolving the phylogeny of lizards and snakes (Squamata) with extensive sampling of genes and species. Biology Letters 8:1043-1046.
  • Blankers, T., T. M. Townsend, T. W. Reeder, and J. J. Wiens. 2012. Contrasting global-scale evolutionary radiations of iguanian lizards. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 108:127-143.
  • Mulcahy, D. G., B. P. Noonan, T. Moss, T. M. Townsend, T. W. Reeder, J. W. Sites Jr., and J. J. Wiens. 2012. Estimating divergence dates and evaluating dating methods using phylogenomic and mitochondrial data in squamate reptiles. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65:974-991.
  • de Quieroz, K. and T. W. Reeder. 2012. Squamata – Lizards. In . I. Crother (ed.), Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, pp. 32–51. SSAR Herpetological Circular No. 39.
  • Sites, J. W., T. W. Reeder, and J. J. Wiens. 2011. Phylogenetic insights on evolutionary novelties in lizards and snakes:  Sex, birth, bodies, niches, and venom. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 2:227-244.
  • Townsend, T. M., D. G. Mulcahy, B. P. Noonan, J. W. Sites, Jr., C. A. Kuczynski, J. J. Wiens, and T. W. Reeder. 2011. Phylogeny of iguanian lizards inferred from 29 nuclear loci, and a comparison of concatenated and species-tree approaches. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61:363-380.
  • Townsend, T. M., D. H. Leavitt, and T. W. Reeder. 2011. Intercontinental dispersal by a microendemic burrowing reptile. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278:2568-2574, doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.2598.
  • Reeder, T. W., and J. D. Reichert. 2011. Phylogenetic relationships within the Australian limb-reduced lizard genus Hemiergis Scincidae; Squamata) based on mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences. Copeia 2011:113-120.
  • Wiens, J. J., C. A. Kuczynski T. Townsend, T. W. Reeder, D. Mulcahy, and J. W. Sites. 2010. Combining phylogenomics and fossils in higher-level squamate phylogeny: Molecular data change the placement of fossil taxa. Systematic Biology 59:674-688.
  • Wiens, J. J., C. A. Kuczynski, S. Arif, and T. W. Reeder. 2010. Phylogenetic relationships of phrynosomatid lizards based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, and a revised phylogeny of Sceloporus   Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54:150-161.
  • Wiens, J. J., C. A. Kuczynski, S. A. Smith, D. Mulcahy, J. W. Sites, T. M. Townsend, and T. W. Reeder. 2008. Branch length, support, and congruence: Testing the phylogenomic approach with 20 nuclear loci in snakes. Systematic Biology 57:420-431.
  • Zaldivar-Riverón, A., A. Nieto Montes de Oca, N. Manríquez-Morán, and T. W. Reeder. 2008. Phylogenetic affinities of the rare and enigmatic limb-reduced Anelytropsis Reptilia: Squamata) as inferred from mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequence data. Journal of Herpetology 42:303–311.
  • Townsend, T. M., E. R. Alegre, S. T. Kelley, J. J. Wiens, and T. W. Reeder. 2008. Rapid development of multiple nuclear loci for phylogenetic analysis using genomic resources:  An example from squamate reptiles. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47:129–142.
  • Wood, D. A., R. N. Fisher, and T. W. Reeder. 2008. Novel patterns of historical isolation, dispersal, and secondary contact across Baja California in the Rosy Boa (Lichanura trivirgata . Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46:484–502.
  • de Quieroz, K. and T. W. Reeder. 2008. Squamata – Lizards. In . I. Crother (ed.), Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, pp. 24–45. SSAR Herpetological Circular No. 37.
  • Crawford, N. G., J. Zalidvar-Rae, C. Hagen, A. Schable, E. B. Rosenblum, M. G. Ritchie, T. W. Reeder, J. A. Graves, and T. C. Glenn. 2008. Thirteen polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci from whiptails of the genusAspidoscelis nd related cnemidophorine lizards. Molecular Ecology Resources 8:219–223.
  • Wiens, J. J., C. A. Kuczynski, W. E. Duellman, and T. W. Reeder. 2007. Loss and re-evolution of complex life cycles in marsupial frogs: Does ancestral trait reconstruction mislead?  Evolution 61:1886–1899.
  • Smith, S. A., A. Nieto Montes de Oca, T. W. Reeder, and J. J. Wiens. 2007. A phylogenetic perspective on elevational species richness patterns in Middle American treefrogs: why so few species in lowland tropical rainforests?  Evolution 61:1188–1207.
  • Wiens, J. J., C. H. Graham, D. S. Moen, S. A. Smith, and T. W. Reeder. 2006. Evolutionary and ecological causes of the latitudinal diversity gradient in hylid frogs: treefrog trees unearth the roots of high tropical diversity. American Naturalist 168:579–596.
  • Wiens, J. J., M. C. Brandley, and T. W. Reeder. 2006. Why does a trait evolve multiple times within a clade?  Repeated evolution of snake-like body form in squamate reptiles. Evolution 60:123–141.
  • Wiens, J. J., , J. W. Fetzner, C. L. Parkinson, and T. W. Reeder. 2005. Hylid frog phylogeny and sampling strategies for speciose clades. Systematic Biology 54:778–807.
  • Reeder, T. W., and C. J. Cole. 2005. Letter to the Editor:  Aspidoscelis ersus Cnemidophorus is a genus of whiptail lizards in North America. Herpetological Review 36:233–234.
  • Brandley, M. C., A. Schmitz, and T. W. Reeder. 2005. Partitioned Bayesian analyses, partition choice, and the phylogenetic relationships of scincid lizards. Systematic Biology 54:373–390.
  • Fyler, C. A., T. W. Reeder, A. Berta, G. Antonelis, A. Aguilar, and E. Androukaki. 2005. Historical biogeography and phylogeny of monachine seals (Pinnipedia: Phocidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data. Journal of Biogeography 2:1267–1279.
  • Rychel, A. L., T. W. Reeder, and A. Berta. 2005. Response to Ulfur Arnason: Where’s the beef?  Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35:311–312.
  • Schmitz, A., M. C. Brandley, P. Mausfeld, M. Vences, F. Glaw, R. A. Nussbaum, andT. W. Reeder. 2005. Opening the black box:  Phylogenetics and morphological evolution of the Malagasy fossorial lizards of the subfamily “Scincinae”. Molecular Phylogenetics and em>Evolution 34:118–133.
  • Gergus, E., T. W. Reeder, and B. K. Sullivan. 2004. Geographic variation in Hyla wrightorum   Advertisement calls, allozymes, mtDNA, and morphology. Copeia 2004:758–769.
  • Rychel, A. L., T. W. Reeder, and A. Berta. 2004. Phylogeny of mysticete whales based on mitochondrial and nuclear data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32:892–901.
  • Lee, M. S. Y., T. W. Reeder, J. B. Slowinski, and R. Lawson. 2004. Resolving reptile relationships:  Molecular and morphological markers. In: Cracraft, J. and M. J. Donoghue (Eds.), Assembling the Tree of Life   Oxford University Press, NY, pp. 451–467.
  • Crother, B. I., J. Boundy, J. A. Campbell, K. de Queiroz, D. R. Frost, D. M. Green, R. Highton, J. B. Iverson, P. A. Meylan, T. W. Reeder, M. E. Seidel, J. W. Sites, Jr., T. W. Taggart, S. G. Tilley, and D. B. Wake. 2003. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico:  An update. Herpetological Review 4:196–203.
  • Reeder, T. W.  2003. A phylogeny of the Australian Sphenomorphus roup (Scincidae: Squamata) and the phylogenetic placement of the crocodile skinks (Tribolonotus : Bayesian approaches to assessing congruence and obtaining confidence in maximum likelihood inferred relationships. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 7:384–397.
  • Richmond, J. Q., and T. W. Reeder. 2002. Evidence for parallel ecological speciation in scincid lizards of the Eumeces skiltonianus pecies group (Squamata: Scincidae). Evolution 6:1498–1513.
  • Reeder, T. W., Charles J. Cole, and H. Dessauer. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships of Cnemidophorus Squamata: Teiidae):  A test of monophyly, re-evaluation of karyotypic evolution, and review of hybrid origins. American Museum Novitates 365:1–61.
  • Leaché, A. D., and T. W. Reeder. 2002. Molecular systematics of the Eastern Fence Lizard (Sceloporus undulatus :  A comparison of parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian approaches. Systematic Biology 1:1–26.
  • Reeder, T. W., and R. R. Montanucci. 2001. A phylogenetic analysis of the horned lizard genus Phrynosoma Phrynosomatidae): Evidence from mitochondrial DNA and morphology. Copeia 001:309–323.
  • Crother, B. I., J. Boundy, J. A. Campbell, K. de Queiroz, D. R. Frost, R. Highton, J. B. Iverson, P. A. Meylan, T. W. Reeder, M. E. Seidel, J. W. Sites, Jr., T. W. Taggart, S. G. Tilley, and D. B. Wake. 2001. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding the confidence in our understanding. SSAR em>Herpetological Circular o. 29:1–82.
  • Wiens, J. J., T. W. Reeder, and A. N. Montes De Oca. 1999. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution of sexual dichromatism among populations of the Yarrow’s spiny lizard (Sceloporus jarrovii . Evolution 3:1884–1897.
  • Wiens, J. J., and T. W. Reeder. 1997. Phylogeny of the spiny lizards (Sceloporus based on molecular and morphological evidence. Herpetological Monographs 1:1–101.
  • Dessauer, H. C., T. W. Reeder, C. J. Cole, and A. Knight. 1996. Rapid screening of DNA diversity using dot-blot technology and allele-specific oligonucleotides:  Maternity of hybrids and unisexual clones of hybrid origin (Lizards, CnemidophorusMolecular Phylogenetics and Evolution :366–372.
  • Reeder, T. W., and J. J. Wiens. 1996. Evolution of the lizard family Phrynosomatidae as inferred from diverse types of data. Herpetological Monographs 0:43–84.
  • Reeder, T. W. 1996. A new species of Pholidobolus Squamata:  Gymnophthalmidae)from the Huancabamba Depression of northern Peru. Herpetologica 2:282–289.
  • Wiens, J. J., and T. W. Reeder. 1995. Combining data sets with different numbers of taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Systematic Biology 4:548–558..
  • Reeder, T. W. 1995. Phylogenetic relationships among phrynosomatid lizards as inferred from mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences:  Substitutional bias and the information content of transitions relative to transversions. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution : 203–222.
  • Simmons, A. D., J. L. Longmire,T. W. Reeder, H. A. Wichman, and R. J. Baker. 1992. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms in heterochromatic DNA distinguish chromosomal races of Peromyscus leucopus   Molecular Ecology : 251–254.
  • Reeder, T. W.  1990. Eumeces managuae   Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles  (467): 1–2.
  • Wichman, H. A., C. T. Payne, and T. W. Reeder. 1990. Intrageneric variation in repetitive sequences isolated by phylogenetic screening of mammalian genomes. In: Clegg, M. T. and S. J. O’Brien (Eds.), Molecular Evolution   Alan R. Liss, NY, pp. 153–160.

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